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The strategic role of the information and communication technology (ICT) sector and their growing incorporation in the various sectors of the economy has led to an increase in the applicability and activities surrounding these technologies. 

In particular, computer security has become one of the main concerns of organizations: the assets to be protected and the vulnerabilities increase and cyber-attacks are more frequent and complex, having devastating consequences, such as the disclosure of confidential information or identity theft.

Moreover, the application of ICT in the management of cities presents opportunities to find innovative solutions to current problems and challenges:  management of infrastructures and communications, waste management, energy and the provision of public goods and services (education, health, safety, transport, etc.). In addition, the use of ICT in cities poses major challenges beyond its strictly technical component: technology and mass data use open up new management and participation opportunities, but they also open up new spaces that require regulation and rules.